Construction of oil, gas
and petrochemical industry objects

Construction of oil pipelines

At the present rate of consumption, pipelines play an important role, which is very difficult to overestimate. Each year, the cargo turnover attributable to the pipelines grows rapidly, which now amounts to almost a third of the total cargo turnover of Russia.

Construction of oil pipeline is a complex engineering task, because it is necessary not only to make an examination of pipes, but also to weld them sealed into a single line, and quite long. According to statistics, the total length of welds is about one and a half times longer than the length of the pipeline itself!

Classification of oil pipelines

Oil pipeline is usually called a pipeline for crude oil and petroleum products Depending on the type of material being pumped oil pipeline called kerosene-, gasoline-, black oil pipeline, etc.

It is important to know exactly the purpose of oil pipeline construction even in the design phase. So by purpose oil pipeline can be divided into several groups:

1. Transit oil pipelines

They are designed for transportation of petroleum products from the areas of mining, production or storage the to final consumption sites. A distinctive feature is the high throughput, the diameter of pipeline is usually 219 - 1400 mm, overpressure - 1.2 -10 MPa.

2. Process oil pipelines

They are designed for the transportation of petroleum products within an industrial site or group of enterprises, as well as for transportation of the chemicals needed to maintain the process and operation of production equipment.

3. Field oil pipelines

They are used to connect an oil well with a number of facilities and stations used to prepare oil in in the oil fields.

Pipe-laying in the construction of the pipeline is either single or in parallel with the existing transit oil pipeline. In some cases, it is allowed to construct gas and oil in one technical corridor. The technical corridor is understood as a system of pipes laid in parallel on the same route (defined in the SNP 27.05.06-85).
Precise and proper choice of the parameters of material being transported is of great importance for process oil pipelines and oil pumping stations. These parameters include operating pressure, overpressure, operating temperature, maximum and minimum temperature of the material.

The scheme of construction of petrochemical facilities

The composition of transit oil pipelines include a number of petrochemical facilities:

  • linear structures,
  • transfer pumping stations,
  • liquid pumping stations,
  • tank batteries.

Petrochemical facilities in the line structures in accordance with SNIP 2.05.06-85 include:

  • pipeline with branches and looping, isolation valves, transitions over natural and man-made obstacles,  oil pump station connection unit, units for start and receiving treatment devices and separators for sequential pumping,
  • stations for electrochemical corrosion protection of pipelines,
  • lines and structures of technological communication,
  • means of telemetry for pipelines,
  • power lines to supply pipelines,
  • power supply unit and remote control of isolation valve or stations for electrochemical protection of pipelines;
  • fire-fighting facilities, erosion control and protective construction of the pipeline;
  • containers for storage and degassing of condensate
  • excavation pits for emergency release of oil,
  • buildings and facilities of linear service of pipelines;
  • permanent roads and helicopter landing sites along the pipeline route, and drive ways to them,
  • identification and location signs of pipeline;
  • pits of heating oil pointers and warning signs.

Trunk oil pipelines are usually buried in the ground to a depth of 0.8 m to the top of the forming pipe, if another depth isn’t regulated by special conditions.

At intervals of 10-30 km oil pipeline is equipped with linear valves provided for isolating portions of an accident or for repairs. Along the pipe, route is equipped with telephone line or radio dispatch communication station cathodic protection and drainage protection.

Petrochemical facilities also include pumping stations, which are installed at intervals of 70-150 km, stations equipped with electric drive centrifugal pumps. If the length of the oil pipeline is more than 800 kilometers, it is divided into separate operational areas with an average length of 200 km, independent work of pumping equipment is possible in a separate area.